Toxicology and Ecotoxicology
The course gives a basic overview on fundamentals in both human- and ecotoxicology. Basic toxicological processes encompass toxicokinetic (TK) and toxicodynamic (TD) descriptions of pollutants in organisms. The toxicokinetic processes are what the organism does to the chemical, and can be described through the understanding of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) of chemical substances in organisms. The toxicodynamic processes are what the chemical does to the organism: the toxic mechanisms. Toxic mechanisms take place at different organizational levels and on different time scales, from chemical effects on the gene expression level, to effects on cell function, effects on organs, on organism health, growth, reproduction and survival and finally, in an ecotoxicological context also on the population of the organism and on the community of species in the environment. To comprehend toxic mechanisms and the impact of chemicals on humans and the environment, understanding of the whole chain of effects, also called Adverse Outcome Pathways, is important.
The principles of toxicokinetic (TK) and dynamic (TD) processes for major groups of pollutants will be taught through lectures, theoretical and practical exercises. In addition to the theory of toxic effects, the students will use different on-line databases and computational tools applied in toxicology and ecotoxicology, to calculate Effect Concentrations (e.g. EC50), No Observable Adverse Effect Concentrations (NOAECs), Lowest Observable Effect Concentrations (LOECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), which are metrics used to quantify hazards of chemicals. They will learn to critically interpret dose-response data and the parameters derived from them. In addition they will get an introduction to the use of TKTD models, their strengths and weaknesses compared to the more traditional dose-response assessments of toxicity and their use in human- and ecotoxicological research. Also, the students will learn how to predict the effect of chemical cocktails using standard mixture toxicity models. Basic statistical considerations and tools to interpret toxicity data (as the pro’s and con’s of significance testing, use of power analysis, recognizing type 1 and type 2 errors, trade-offs between doses and replications in an experiment, weight of evidence approaches for quality assurance of experiments etc) will be introduced, used and discussed. The computational programs used will be Excel and R. The students will have to conduct two laboratory experiments: one in vivo study, looking at chemical effects on the organismal level, and one in vitro study, investigating effects on an enzymatic or cellular level. For each experiment the students have to develop their own laboratory protocol and they will need to use the computational tools conducting either dose-response curves or parameterizing TKTD models. The data has to be interpreted in the theoretical framework of ADME and AOP for their specific toxicant and test, and the results will be presented for and evaluated by their peer students (poster and oral presentation, as well as a scientific manuscript).
MSc in Environmental Science
The main objective of the course is to introduce the fundamental processes important for understanding the mechanisms of chemical toxicity.
- In addition, the students should get an overview of key methods used in human- and ecotoxicology to investigate these processes, and they should recognize the main strengths and weaknesses of the different methodologies.
- The students should get practical experience with setting up hypotheses/research questions, planning an experiment in the lab to investigate the given question, and write a protocol to be followed in the lab for a typical in vivo and in vitro experiment.
- They should be able to treat data with proper statistical methods and computational modelling tools, and interpret the data in relation to the scientific literature within the studied topic.
- Finally the students should acquire skills in communicating scientific results both orally and in writing in different formats.
The course is recommended for students who upon completion of
their studies will be employed in sectors dealing with
environmental issues, such as public inspection, public health,
environmental consulting, medical industry and the bioprocessing
At the end of the course, students will be able to:
describe the main physico-chemical properties of chemicals important for predicting uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes of chemical pollutants in organisms
describe toxicological mode of actions, including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption, genotoxicity and carcinogenesity and give examples of groups of chemical substances eliciting these effects in humans and environmental species.
define the most vulnerable target processes, organ(s) or organism(s) for most important groups of xenobiotics and interpret the toxicological mechanisms using the AOP-concept
demonstrate knowledge on extrapolation from animal to human, and from one species to several species and trophic levels in the environment
interpret both acute and chronical toxicity data and evaluate different types of dose-response relationships, TKTD experiment data and results from experiments evaluating the effect of chemicals and their mixtures
knowledge of basic statistical considerations when doing toxicity experiments, including choice of number of doses versus number of replications, choice of significance levels, use of power analyses and the occurrence of type 1 and type 2 errors.
Conduct relevant statistical tests to calculate EC50, NOAEC and LOEC and dose-response curves with its associated parameters
Use relevant software for conducting dose-response analyses, model TKTD processes and calculate mixture toxicity effects (e.g. Excel, R).
Use on-line databases to find relevant data on toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of chemicals, inclusing specific modes of action nd documented AOP
Critically curate litterature data and use a weight-of-evidence approach to quality grade scientific litterature
Plan and formulate a protocol for conducting a laboratory study, including the quantification of materials and substances needed and making a realistic timeline for conducting the experiment
Perform simple in vitro and in vivo human toxicological and ecotoxicological laboratory tests, document and interpret the data
Report laboratory results orally and/or written as a poster or a research manuscript or an oral presentation
Work in international groups with people having different educational backgrounds , and conduct constructive peer-feedback on laboratory work presentations
Integrate principles from chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry and ecology to develop and solve simple toxicological questions
Quantify toxicity and uncertainties related to the numbers across biological levels from molecular interactions to effects on individuals, communities and ecosystems
Work in a dynamic interdisciplinary environment to produce a usable output on tasks given
Lectures, theoretical and laboratory exersises, quizzes, discussion of papers and peer-review of presentations.
Will be announced on Absalon.
Basic knowledge at university BSc-level of 5 ETCS in each of the
following topics: human or animal physiology, biochemistry, organic
and inorganic chemistry and statistics.
Knowledge of basic environmental chemistry, biology and microbiology will be an advantage
Academic qualifications equivalent to a BSc degree is recommended.
The course is identical to the discontinued course STFKA0002U
Toxicology and Ecotoxicology. Therefore you cannot register for
NPLK18000U Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, if you have already passed
STFKA0002U Toxicology and Ecotoxicology.
If you are registered with examination attempts in STFKA0002U Toxicology and Ecotoxicology without having passed the course, you have to use your last examination attempts to pass the exam in NPLK18000U Toxicology and Ecotoxicology. You have a total of three examination attempts.
- 7,5 ECTS
- Type of assessment
Oral examination, 30 min
- Type of assessment details
- The students start drawing a question in the curriculum which he/she will have 20 min to prepare. The examination then starts with the student presenting the question and will continue with the examiners asking questions concerning the final presentation of the laboratory work possibly supplemented with additional questions within the curriculum.
- All aids allowed
The use of Large Language Models (LLM)/Large Multimodal Models (LMM) – such as ChatGPT and GPT-4 – is permitted in the preparation time but not during the examination where only notes are permitted.
- Marking scale
- 7-point grading scale
- Censorship form
- External censorship
Criteria for exam assessment
See "Learning outcome"
Upper secondary school teacher degree (minor subject)
- Class Instruction
- Theory exercises
- Course number
- 7,5 ECTS
- Programme level
- Full Degree Master
- Block 1
- Study Board of Natural Resources, Environment and Animal Science
- Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
- Faculty of Science
- Nina Cedergreen
A number of guest lecturers working with specific relevant topics such as endocrine disruptive substances and carcinogenic substances will give lectures at the course.
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Courseinformation of students