Veterinary Imaging

Course content

The course comprises the following elements in veterinary diagnostic imaging:

Radiographic anatomy/ Topographic anatomy:·
· The common anatomical features within various body regions including the head, neck, thoracic and pelvic limbs, the thorax and abdomen, that are of relevant for the interpretation of diagnostic images produced by the range of modern imaging modalities. Special focus will be put on images from the dog, cat and from the limbs of the horse.

Radiation safety and radiation biology
· The nature of x-rays as an ionizing radiation and their effect on biological tissue. The relation between tissue dose and biological effect. Work related exposure of personnel to ionizing radiation as a result of imaging and therapeutic uses of these radiations. Dose limits and the “ALARA” (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) principal.
· The appropriate radiation safety steps, with practical examples relating to work practice and work place infrastructure, based on Danish legislation in this area.

Basics of conventional radiographic imaging
· Production of x-rays
· The x-ray spectrum  including manipulation of the spectrum of x-rays emitted from diagnostic x-ray tubes and interaction of x-rays with matter
· Compton and photoelectric effects
· Concepts of radiographic density
· Causes of poor image contrast with emphasis on scattered radiation
· Image sharpness
· Radiographic image detectors
· Positioning and technical aspects relating to correct positioning and exposure for standard views of the skeleton, thorax and abdomen in veterinary species
· Systematic interpretation of radiographic images
· The use of appropriate radiographic terminology

Basics of ultrasound imaging
· Nature of ultrasound beams
· Effect of insonation frequency on image quality
· Physical basis for tissue echogenicity
· Brightness mode imaging
· Doppler imaging
· Concept of cross sectional imaging
· Ultrasound machine settings and image optimisation 
· Image acquisition and recognition of major abdominal organs

MRI, CT, and nuclear medicine and the physical basis of the various modalities:
Examples of clinical applications of Computer tomography:
· Cross sectional and planar reconstruction
· The CT number, linear attenuation coefficients for x-rays and the Hounsfield Unit
· Digital image windowing, window width and centre/leveling

Examples of clinical applications of Nuclear medicine:
· Scintigraphy
· Radioisotopes with emphasis on 99Tcm
· Radiopharmaceuticals

Examples of clinical applications Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
· Hydrogen as a magnetic dipole
· Magnetic gradients
· Radiofrequency coils
· Basis of image generation

Education

MSc Programme in Veterinary Medicine - compulsory

Learning outcome

 Knowledge
· Identify and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
· Be able to comment on the suitability of various imaging modalities in response to selected clinical scenarios.
· Be able to comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
· Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and centering in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
· Recognise images produced by radiography, ultrasound, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.

Skills
· Produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
· List the radiographic changes that are commonly encountered in common diseases in dogs, cats and horses.
· Identify normal and abnormal radiographic findings on radiographic images in selected cases commonly encountered in veterinary practice.
· Use appropriate digital software for digital imaging
· Recognize and find normal abdominal organs commonly encountered in ultrasound examinations.
· Perform a standard radiographical examination.
· Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, and ultrasound.
· Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

Competencies
· Speculate on and discuss the changes one might expect to encounter given various disease scenarios.
· Behave in accordance with the current legislation (Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Bekendtgørelse nr 669 af 01/07/2019, nr 670 af 01/07/2019, Bekendtgørelse nr 671 af 01/07/2019).

 

 

 

The course runs over 5 weeks. In the first week (the introduction module) all students are introduced to different disciplines within veterinary imaging (theoretical lectures). In the following 2 x 4 weeks students are split in 2 large groups rotating between 4 weeks on the Veterinary Imaging course and 4 weeks on the other course in the block.

The veterinary imaging rotation (the 4 weeks rotation) consists of a theoretical practical module including interpretation paradigms and radiographic anatomy, a practical module concerning appropriate radiographic technique and exercises in ultrasonography and finally a clinical case module including interpretation of small and large animal radiology, CT and MRI.

The teaching is comprised of lectures, seminars, group work, e-learning, as well as individual obligatory practical exercises and tests that must be approved in order to obtain the course certificate. Supervised work including e-learning and guided cases in order to facilitate the students’ learning of the methodology and principles of diagnostic imaging.

Theoretical module / Introduction week: 5 sessions 13.00 – 17.00, Friday also 9-12:30.
- Monday: Introduction and Radiation safety and radiobiology
- Tuesday: Radiographic anatomy
- Wednesday: Basic radiology, principles of diagnostic imaging
- Friday: Diagnostic imaging physics - Main focus on radiography and ultrasonography

Practical modules: 4 weeks 08.30 to 14.30 or 9.00-15.00
- Theoretical/practical module: 6 days of lectures/exercises covering radiographic anatomy, companion animal and equine imaging.
- Practical module: 6 days of clinical exercises of basic radiography and ultrasound including radiation safety and radiobiology in companion animals and horses.
- Case module: 5 days of case interpretation including small and large animal radiology, CT and MRI.

Evaluation model: Survey-based model

Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology 7. ed. 2018 (Editor: Thrall) ISBN 9780323482479·

Chapter 4 in Small Animal Ultrasound by Nyland og Mattoon, 3rd edition (2015)

Lecture notes and compendia available on Absalon.

Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Lov om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse (strålebeskyttelsesloven) 

Bekendtgørelse nr 669 af 01/07/2019, Bekendtgørelse om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse 

Bekendtgørelse nr 670 af 01/07/2019, Bekendtgørelse om brug af radioaktive stoffer 

Bekendtgørelse  nr 671 af 01/07/2019 Bekendtgørelse om brug af strålingsgeneratorer 

Strålehygiejne ved røntgenundersøgelse af dyr. Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2002. (available at the Absalon site)

Veterinær brug af transportabelt røntgenapparater, Sundhedsstyrelsen 2016 (available at the Absalon site)

Approved course certificate of course Medicin, kirurgi og reproduktion - mindre husdyr and SVEK13005U Medicin, kirurgi og reproduktion - store husdyr SVEK13004U.

Oral
Collective
Peer feedback (Students give each other feedback)
ECTS
7,5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Continuous assessment, 4 x 1 hour
Practical oral examination, 15 minutes
4 hours exam. Questions cover radiation safety and radiobiology, radiology (X-ray) imaging, ultrasound, CT, MRI and scintigraphy. Questions on all modalities evaluate an understanding of the underlying imaging principles and on radiology and ultrasound imaging will test understanding and skills required to evaluate clinical images in small and large animals.

The examination will take the form of assignments that run throughout the course. The assignments may include multiple choice questions, short answer questions or short essay questions and peer-reviewed activities. The practical part includes an OSCE-based radiographic task.
Aid
Only certain aids allowed

Reference materials appropriate to the exam format will be allowed. This will range from no material allowed for the practical to all material alowed for some of the other assignment formats. Students will be informed during the course prior to the specific assignments.

Marking scale
completed/not completed
Censorship form
No external censorship
No censorship. One examiner.
Criteria for exam assessment

To pass the  running examinations during the course including the online  examination the student shall demonstrate, at an adequate level:


Knowledge
· Identity and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
· Comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
· Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and focusing in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
· Recognise images produced by each of the methods, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.

Skills
· Be able to produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
· Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, CT and ultrasound.
· Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

Competencies
· Behave in accordance with current Danish legislation (currently Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Lov om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse (strålebeskyttelsesloven), Bekendtgørelse nr 669 af 01/07/2019, nr 670 af 01/​07/​2019, Bekendtgørelse nr 671 af 01/07/2019)
· Perform a standard radiological examination.
· Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

  • Category
  • Hours
  • Lectures
  • 14
  • Preparation
  • 78
  • Theory exercises
  • 5
  • Practical exercises
  • 60
  • E-Learning
  • 27
  • Project work
  • 18
  • Exam
  • 4
  • English
  • 206