Pharmacology: From Physiology to Therapy

Course content

The course covers the following themes. Themes in BOLD will have associated projects and tutorials from which a student outcome (written report, oral presentation or class exercise) is expected.

  • Cardiovascular: Structure, function and pathophysiology of the cardio-vascular system and the drug classes applied to the system.
  • Respiratory: Structure and function of the respiratory system, including the transport of gasses in the blood, lung diseases and drug classes for treatment of respiratory diseases.
  • Kidney: The function of the kidney with emphasis on clearance and functions of the nephrons, including excretion of drugs. The role of the kidney in acid/base regulation, salt- and water balance and actions of medicines which disturb homeostasis.
  • Endocrinology: The physiology of hormone producing organs, including glucose regulating hormones, calcium regulating hormones, growth hormones, thyroid hormones, anabolic steroids, sex hormones and glucocorticoids. Energy transformation and temperature regulation including drugs for treatment of obesity and antipyretics and diseases related to the above hormones.
  • Central Nervous System: Structure and function of the central nervous system, including actions of drugs indicated in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, psychosis, depression, epilepsy, pain, sleep disorders, anxiety and drug addiction/abuse.
  • Pain: Central and peripheral physiology of pain and treatment/mechanisms of action of pain with analgesics.
  • Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract (GI), the liver and the pancreas with emphasis on drug actions on the function and diseases of the GI tract including the liver and the pancreas.
  • The physiology of the immune system and its diseases; allergy and autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis). Immunomodulators including: biologicals (mabs), antihistamines, and vaccines. Infections (bacterial, parasite, microbes and viral) and their treatments.
  • Cancer mechanisms and treatment with cytotoxic drugs.
  • Novel Treatments: gene therapy and adenovirus vectors
Education

MSc Programme in Pharmaceutical Sciences (English programme): Line I ('Drug Discovery' track) & III ('Medicines and Society' track) - compulsory

 

Learning outcome

This course has two overall goals and two different methods of assessment of success of these goals (see later assessment section):

  • To ensure students gain fundamental knowledge relevant to pharmaceutical science:
    Students must attain a basic familiarity with human physiology and understanding of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological management of disorders. Accordingly, this course is designed to instil in students an anatomical and physiological knowledge about the structure and function of organs, including the effects of commonly-appearing diseases upon organ systems. On the basis of this knowledge, students should understand not only the effects of pharmacotherapies, but also the mode of action and the principles behind safe and rational use of drugs. This goal will be assessed with a written exam.
     
  • To ensure students gain skills to perform a task within pharmaceutical sciences:
    Students must learn how to apply knowledge they have acquired in pensum material to real world problems. This goal will be assessed by active participation in tutorials and projects necessitating completion of a specific product based task. Tutorials and projects are designed to draw from pensum material so that students gain experience putting learned material into practical use. Attendance at, and participation in, tutorials and projects is expected to solidify and assist in retention of pensum material. Within six main themes, students will be expected to create a product (oral presentation or written report). Within two of these six themes, students will be expected in a project to read a basic research paper directly relevant to pensum material. They will present this paper exhibiting the ability to extract relevant information. By conducting tutorial and project tasks, students will be encouraged to exhibit intellectual independence and choice.

 

At the end of the course, students are expected to be able to:

Knowledge

  • explain in depth the basic function of major organs. The latter includes the modulation and feedback systems involved in maintaining homeostasis.
  • explain the consequences of pathophysiological disturbances in single organs and organ systems, including drugs to treat these disturbances.
  • reflect on the target for the action, the indication and contraindication for treatment with commonly used drugs.
  • explain virus biology and potential strategies for development of anti-viral pharmacological agents.

 

Skills

  • perform basic calculations based on kidney, cardiac and respiratory lectures and tutorials.
  • communicate the properties of classes of commonly used drugs used for treatment of major diseases.
  • read a primary research report related to the lecture material with the ability to extract relevant information and biomedical significance.

 

Competences

  • propose a relevant pharmacological intervention for a patient with a known disease on the basis of a relevant patient description.

•69 lectures (45-minutes)
•39 class tutorials/projects (45-minutes)
•8 class-room exercises/laboratory work (45-minutes)

  • Rang, H.P., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. & Henderson, G.: Rand and Dale's Pharmacology, 8th edition, Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, 2016.
  • Silverthorn D.V: Human Physiology, 7th edition, 2016
  • Notes on respiratory, kidney and cardiac physiology
  • Notes on virus biology

 

Recommended, not required:

Chiasera, Hardy and Smith: Quick guide to Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press 2006

Course teaching is based on the assumption that students have knowledge of basic concepts of:
• General chemistry, physical chemistry and/or organic chemistry corresponding to at least 15 ECTS credits.
• Biochemistry, cellular biology and/or microbiology corresponding to 15 ECTS credits.
• The course Principles of Pharmacology. 7.5 ECTS credits or corresponding qualifications.

ECTS
15 ECTS
Type of assessment
Written examination, 3 hours under invigilation
The written examination consists of a set of problems, which may include calculations, that draw from course content and must be answered without assistance of written materials. The individual weight of the problems and the questions are designated in the examination set.

The general impression is part of the assessment and may give rise to an adjustment of up to 10% of the score. Such an adjustment is based on the student’s demonstration of an overall knowledge of basic pharmacological principles and topics, and the absence of severe voids in the attempt.

In order to access the development of skills to perform tasks with the knowledge presented, the student will be asked to exhibit participation in tutorials or projects within the 6 themes selected in the "Content" section. Participation will be defined by a student outcome (product) which will vary from oral presentation to written report.
Participation in these tasks is mandatory for eligibility to take the written examination.

Active participation in 6 student assignments is a prerequisite for attending the exam.
Aid
Without aids

There is access to the following at the exam on Peter Bangs Vej:

  • Office (Word, Excel, Onenote and Powerpoint)
  • IO2 – the digital pen
  • Panoramic Viewer
  • Paint
  • Calculator – Windows' own
  • R – Statistical programme
  • ITX MC – multiple choice programme
  • Adobe reader
  • MathType - formel programme

 

usb-stick is not allowed

Marking scale
7-point grading scale
Censorship form
External censorship
Criteria for exam assessment

To achieve the grade 12 the student must be able to:

Knowledge

  • demonstrate with aplomb a comprehensive view of pharmacological principles, and convincingly combine the learned elements.
  • demonstrate with few deficiencies, a mastery of relevant terms, principles and methods used in the process of drug development from discovery to production.
  • explain in depth the basic function of major organs. The latter includes the modulation and feedback systems involved in maintaining homeostasis.
  • explain the consequences of pathophysiological disturbances in single organs and organ systems, including drugs to treat these disturbances.
  • reflect on the target for the action, the indication and contraindication for treatment with commonly used drugs.
  • explain virus biology and potential strategies for development of anti-viral pharmacological agents.

 

  • Skills

  • perform basic calculations based on kidney and respiratory lectures and tutorials.
  • communicate the properties of classes of commonly used drugs used for treatment of major diseases.
  • read a primary research report related to the lecture material with the ability to extract relevant information and biomedical significance.

 

Competences

  • propose a relevant pharmacological intervention for a patient with a known disease on the basis of a relevant patient description.

Single subject courses (day)

  • Category
  • Hours
  • Lectures
  • 69
  • Preparation
  • 164
  • Project work
  • 39
  • Preparation
  • 88
  • Practical exercises
  • 8
  • Preparation
  • 4
  • Exam
  • 40
  • English
  • 412