Veterinary Imaging

Course content

The course comprises the following elements:
Basis of conventional radiographic imaging
· Production of x-rays
 The x-ray spectrum  including manipulation of the spectrum of x-rays emitted from diagnostic x-ray tubes and interaction of x-rays with matter
· Compton and photoelectric effects
· Concepts of radiographic density
· Causes of poor image contrast with emphasis on scattered radiation.
· Image sharpness
· Radiographic image detectors.
Basic radiography / Production of optimal radiographic images.
· Positioning and technical aspects relating to correct positioning and exposure for standard views of the skeleton, thorax and abdomen in veterinary species.
· The use of appropriate radiographic terminology.
Radiographic anatomy/topographic anatomy:·
The common anatomical features within various body regions including the head, neck, thoracic and pelvic limbs, the thorax and abdomen, that are of relevance for the interpretation of diagnostic images produced by the range of modern imaging modalities. Special focus will be put on images from the dog, cat and from the limbs of the horse.
Radiation safety and radiation biology
·
The nature of x-rays as an ionizing radiation and their  effect on biological tissue. The relation between tissue dose and biological effect. Work related exposure of personnel to ionizing radiation as a result of imaging and therapeutic uses of these radiations. Dose limits and the “ALARA” (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) principal.
· The appropriate radiation safety steps, with practical examples relating to work practice and work place infrastructure, based on Danish legislation in this area.
Ultrasound, MRI, CT, and Scintigraphy · the physical basis of the various modalities:
Ultrasound imaging:
· Nature of ultrasound beams·
 Effect of insonation frequency on image quality
· Physical basis for tissue echogenesity
· Brightness mode imaging
· Doppler imaging
· Concept of cross sectional imaging
Examples of clinical applications Computer tomography:
· Cross sectional and planar reconstruction
· The CT number, linear attenuation coefficients for x-rays and the Hounsfield Unit.
· Digital image windowing, window width and centre.
Examples of clinical applications Scintigraphy:
· Radioisotopes with emphasis on 99Tcm
· Radiopharmaceuticals
Examples of clinical applications Magnetic resonance imaging:
· Hydrogen as a magnetic dipole
· Magnetic gradients· Radiofrequency coils
· Basis of image generation·
Examples of clinical applications

Education

MSc Programme in Veterinary Medicine - compulsory

Learning outcome

Knowledge:
·Identify and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
·Be able to comment on the suitability of various imaging modalities in response to selected clinical scenarios.
·Comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
·Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and centering in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
·Recognise images produced by  radiography, ultrasound, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.

Skills:
·Be able to produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
·List the radiographic changes that are commonly encountered in common diseases in dogs, cats and horses.
·Identify normal and abnormal radiographic findings on radiographic images in selected cases commonly encountered in veterinary practice
·Recognize and find normal abdominal and thoracic structures commonly encountered in ultrasound examinations
·Perform a standard radiological examination.
.Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, and ultrasound.
·Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

Competencies:
·Speculate on and discuss the changes one might expect to encounter given various disease scenarios.
·Behave in accordance with the legislation (Bekendtgørelse om røntgendiagnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 494 af 12. september 1977 & Bekendtgørelse om ændringer af bekendtgørelse om røntgendiagnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 1089 af september 2007 & Bekendtgørelse om dosisgrænser for ioniserende stråling. Nr 823 af 31. oktober 1997)

 

 

 

The course runs over 5 weeks. In the first week (introduction module) all students are introduced to different disciplines within veterinary imaging (theoretical lectures). In the following 2 x 4 weeks students are split in 2 large groups rotating between 4 weeks on the Veterinary Imaging course and 4 weeks on the other course in the block.

The veterinary imaging rotation consists of a theoretical practical module including interpretation paradigms and radiographic anatomy , a practical module concerning appropriate radiographic technique and exercises in ultrasonography and finally a clinical case module including interpretation of small and large animal radiology, CT and MRI.

The teaching is comprised of lectures, seminars, group work, e-learning, as well as individual obligatory practical exercises and tests that must be approved in order to obtain the course certificate.

 

Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology, 6.ed. 2012 (Editor: Donald E. Thrall), Elsevier - Health Sciences Division. ISBN 9781455703647.
Bekendtgørelse om røntgendiagnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 494 af 12. september 1977.


Bekendtgørelse om ændringer af bekendtgørelse om røntgendiagnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 1089 af september 2007.

Bekendtgørelse om dosisgrænser for ioniserende stråling. Nr 823 af 31. oktober 1997.

Strålehygiejne ved røntgenundersøgelse af dyr. Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2002. (available at http://sundhedsstyrelsen.dk/da/sundhed/straalebeskyttelse/roentgen/vejledninger)

 

Approved course certificate of course Medicin, kirurgi og reproduktion - mindre husdyr and SVEK13005 Medicin, kirurgi og reproduktion - store husdyr SVEK13004.

ECTS
7,5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Written examination, 2 hour under invigilation
The 2 hour written examination takes place at ITX/Peter Bangsvej. The exam may include multiple choice questions, short answer questions or short essay questions.
Aid
Without aids
Marking scale
completed/not completed
Censorship form
No external censorship
No censorship. One examiner.
Criteria for exam assessment

To achieve the grade passed, the student shall (in an adequate level) be able to:

For running examinations during the course and written digital examination.

Knowledge:
·Identity and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
.Comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
.Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and focusing in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
.Recognise images produced by each of the methods, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.

Skills:
Be able to produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
.Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, CT and ultrasound.
·Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

Competencies:
Behave in accordance with the legislation (Bekendtgørelse om røntgendiagnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 494 af 12. september 1977 & Bekendtgørelse om ændringer af bekendtgørelse om røntgendisgnostik anlæg til veterinært brug. Nr. 1089 af september 2007) & Bekendtgørelse om dosisgrænser for ioniserende stråling. Nr 823 af 31. oktober 1997).
Perform a standard radiological examination.
Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.

  • Category
  • Hours
  • Lectures
  • 12
  • Practical exercises
  • 117
  • Project work
  • 45
  • E-Learning
  • 30
  • Exam
  • 2
  • English
  • 206