Kursussøgning, efter- og videreuddannelse – Københavns Universitet

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Kursussøgning, efter- og videreuddannelse


Practical information
Study year 2016/2017
Block 4
Programme level Bachelor
Course responsible
  • Christian J. Bjerrum (3-666d65436c6a71316e7831676e)
  • Department of Geoscience and Natural Resource Management
Course number: NIGB15037U

Course content

The course deals with Earth’s deep time climate history through the study of climate proxies (sedimentary and geochemical) and dynamics of forcing mechanisms at an introductory level. The course uses a qualitative principle oriented approach with a few simple quantitative treatments and exercises. The course introduces the global energy balance, greenhouse effect, the coupled climate system (atmosphere-ocean circulation and heat transport), the carbon cycle and cycling of elements in the ocean, role of the biota in climate change, long-term climate regulation, and Milankovitch cycles.

The presentation of climate-sensitive proxies and stratigraphic archives will be discussed together with the relations to sea-level variation and geo- and oceanographic chemical principles. Presentation of Earth’s paleoclimate may include examples from Greenhouse and Icehouse paleoclimates, Snowball Earth, mass extinction and Cenozoic climate deterioration.

In the exercises and on the field trip we will primarily work with one time period/event as a case illustrating the application of different methods, proxies and their interpretation. In the exercises we introduce and use a numerical computing programming environment (such as MatLab or R) for graphic presentation of climate proxies, statistic correlations, and perform simple calculations of element cycles including stable isotopes.

The course couples a dynamic process understanding of the climate system (ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere) with the geobiochemical feedbacks that amplify climate change. Importantly the concept of coupled systems, systems analysis, and feedback loops are used throughout the course. Finally, examples of past climate change are related to present and future climate change.

Learning outcome


• climate-sensitive proxies and archives
• deep time climate history
• greenhouse effect, energy balance, the coupled climate system (atmosphere-ocean circulation and heat transport), storminess, Milankovitch cycles, carbon cycle
• coupled climate system and geobiochemical feedbacks
• coupled systems and feedback analysis 
• correlation tools and dating methods
• Danish and Scandinavian key localities
• future environmental conditions and climate change


• sedimentological, geochemical, geobiological working methods
• deduce the paleoclimate evolution from paleoclimate proxies and successions
• graphic presentation of geochemical and sedimentological proxies.
• quantitative correlation analysis
• qualitative feedback analyses

• Perform basic mathematical operations in a numerical computing programming environment
• Make figures, graphs and correlation analysis in a numerical computing programming environment


• qualitatively explain the first order processes controlling climate, the large scale atmospheric-ocean circulation, sea-level changes and ice sheet development
• explain and use feedback mechanisms between the climate system and geobiochemical cycles
• use sedimentological, geochemical, biological and dating methods in a paleoclimates context and evaluate the usefulness of these methods and tools in different contexts
• deduce the paleoclimate evolution from paleoclimate proxies and successions
• explain how orbital changes may influence the climate development, ocean and atmospheric circulation and how these changes may be amplified by feedbacks

Recommended prerequisites

Corresponding to the compulsory courses of the 1st year of the BSc Geology-Geoscience programme.


Students shall pay 100,- DKK per field day for food and lodging. Detailed information about payment can be found on the Absalon course page. If the destination of the excursion is abroad, students are required to take out a private travel insurance covering illness and repatriation.

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BSc Programme in Geology-Geoscience


Study Board of Geosciences and Management

Course type

Single subject courses (day)


1 block


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Teaching and learning methods

The form of teaching is lectures, theory exercises, and a 5-days excursion. For the teaching plan, please see Absalon.


64 students (4 classes of 16)




Please see Absalon course page.


Category Hours
Lectures 27
Theory exercises 15
Excursions 60
Preparation 104
English 206


Type of assessment

Oral examination, 20 minutes
The students draws an exam question and is examined without any preparation time and without aids.


Without aids

Marking scale

7-point grading scale

Criteria for exam assessment

Please see learning outcomes

Censorship form

External censorship


Identical to the ordinary examination form.

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